North American Free Trade Agreement links the United States with Mexico and Canada somewhat similar to the EU. Their website is www.nafta-sec-alena.org
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This is the term used to describe the space taken by freight utilising one meter’s length and the full internal width and height of a trailer.
As an extension of the domestic courier, the international courier arranges the transfer of documents and packages across frontiers, using both airfreight and road transport. These services are sometimes referred to as ‘express parcels’ and in general the consignments are relatively light and consist of documents or packages.
International movements of documents by using an ‘on-board’ courier travelling with the envelopes developed rapidly because merchandise carried in this way avoided the delays and cut-off times imposed when the merchandise was booked as ‘cargo’. By being accompanied by a passenger (the courier) the goods went with the passenger and either as hand luggage or as Merchandise in Baggage (MIB) through customs at the passenger terminal, rather than the cargo shed. After immediate clearance through customs the goods are handed over by the courier to his local representative for delivery. After picking up a consignment of goods from the local representative, the courier retraces his steps and returns to his base.
The ‘on-board’ courier is somewhat rare these days and nowadays is only used to accompany cargo that is either extremely urgent ‘one-off’ type transactions or very valuable and needing a high degree of security in transit.
The Association includes top executives from major aircraft manufacturers, airlines, airports, shippers and freight forwarders from all parts of the world. It organises an annual International Air Cargo Forum and Exposition (’94 in Seattle September 13-16) and acts as a catalyst and the voice of the air logistics industry.
According to IACA 35-40% of the world’s trade – by value – moves by air.
The Irish International Freight Association was reconstituted in the early ’70s with the the primary objective of promoting the interests of forwarding agents in the Republic of Ireland.
The Association represents its members with Government departments and other entities such as Port and Airport authorities, Shipping Lines and Airlines.
IIFA is a member of FIATA – the International Federation of Freight Forwarders (see FIATA).
Contactable at Strand House, Strand Street, Malahide, Co. Dublin. Tel – 8331429 .
The consolidator issues his own House Waybill (HWB) for each shipment and each customer receives a copy to identify his consignment. The House Waybills are forwarded with the consol. In a sealed envelope attached to the Master Waybill accompanied by a manifest itemising all the shipments by House Waybill number for identification purposes at destination. Cargo identification labels will show both Air Waybill numbers.
A connection between two networks (VANS) which allows messages on one to be routed through to the other.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade – an international multilateral agreement embodying a code of practise for fair trading in international commerce.Based in Geneva. GATT concerns have now been taken over by the World Trade Organisation.
The tonnage on which freight is charged -e.g. it could be based on the greater weight or measurement of goods where a freight ton is either 1000 kgs or 1 cubic metre. It might also have a conversion factor of 1000 kgs = 3 cubic metres.
(see also Weight or Measure)
The original function of the forwarder, or spediteur, was to arrange for the carriage of his customers’ good by contracting with various carriers. His responsibilities included advice on all documentation and customs requirements in the country of destination. His correspondent agent in far-away lands looked after his customers’ interests and kept him informed about matters that would affect movement of goods.
In modern times the forwarder still carreis out those same responsibilities for his client. He still operates either with a corresponding agent overseas or with his own company branch-office. In many instances, the freight forwarder also acts as a carrier for part of a movement it can happen that in a single transaction the forwarder may be acting either as a carrier (principal) or as an agent for his customer.
The FIATA short-hand description of the freight forwarder as the ‘Architect of Transport’ illustrates clearly the commercial postition of the forwarder relative to his client. In Europe there are forwarders that specialise in ‘niche’ areas such as Railfreight and collection and deliveries around a large prot. The latter are called Hafen(port) Spediteure (Port Forwarders).
A forwarder in some countries may sometimes deal only with domestic traffic and never handle international traffic. (see also Forwarding Agent).